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An African American man in colonial work clothing chops wood on a rural farm.

A series of pages exploring
various aspects of enslavement in Pennsylvania


Enslavement in Pennsylvania

Sources, page 1

Reference Number: 01

Source: "Register of Negro and Mulatto Slaves and Servants, 1780." reprinted in part in Egle, William Henry, History Of The County Of Dauphin In The Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania: Biographical And Genealogical (Philadelphia: Everts and Peck, 1883), 104.
Notes: All enslaved persons listed in this register were to be considered slaves for life. This register is the result of Pennsylvania's Gradual Emancipation Act of 1780, passed on March 1st, which sought to end slavery in a non-disruptive way. It guaranteed property rights by allowing all slaveholders to keep their current slaves for life and provided a clear distinction between an enslaved person and a free Black person by borrowing a feature of colonial property law which was used in settling property disputes: all property had to be registered. Any enslaved persons not registered by November 1st, 1780 were to be considered free persons.

Reference Number: 02

Source: "Children of Previously Registered Slaves," published in Kelker, Luthor Reily. History of Dauphin County Pennsylvania. New York: Lewis Publishing Co., 1907.
Notes: All children of enslaved mothers listed in this registry were to be emancipated upon reaching the age of 28 years. The necessity for this registry became apparent when numerous abuses under the Gradual Emancipation Act of 1780 were observed and publicized by the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery. An act to "explain" the 1780 act was passed requiring the registry of all children of "registered" slaves by April 1st, 1789, and thereafter within six months of the child's date of birth.

Children of Dauphin County slaves were registered over a period of thirty-seven years. The first entry was made in the office of the Clerk of Courts on October 30, 1789 for James Scott of Derry Township who registered the child "Lucy." The last entry was made for Archibald McAllister on August 29, 1825 for the child George Hoofnagle. If he served the entire twenty-eight years, Hoofnagle would have been emancipated in mid-1853.

Reference Number: 03

Source: McBride, David. "The Economics of Inequality: A Look at Black Labor." Pennsylvania Heritage magazine, date unknown. Page 50.
Notes: none

Reference Number: 04

Source: Dauphin County Parks and Recreation Department. Fort Hunter Mansion Tour, Susquehanna Township, Harrisburg PA, October 14, 1990.
Notes: "Slavery and Servitude at Fort Hunter" exhibit, September through December, 1990.

Reference Number: 05

Source: Original emancipation paper in the collection of Fort Hunter Mansion, Harrisburg PA.
Notes: This was typical of the papers which emancipated Blacks had to carry with them to avoid being jailed as runaway slaves. For an example of why emancipation papers were important to free blacks, see Reference Number: 11, below.

Reference Number: 06

Source: The Farmer's Instructor, and Harrisburgh Courant, Wednesday January 8, 1800. Vol. I, no. 1.
Notes: Text of ad: "By virtue of sundry Writs of Fieri Facias and a Writ of Venditioni Exponas, to me directed, will be exposed to Public Sale on Monday the 27th Day of January inst. at 10 o'clock in the Forenoon, at the Dwelling-House of Mrs. Awl in Lower-Paxton. A NEGRO MAN called Peter, about 22 years of age, an excellent Tanner to trade, a Negro Woman called Grace, likewise horses, a Sleigh, Plow, a quantity of Leather, and a number of Household and Kitchen Furniture. Taken in execution as the property of Jacob Awl, and will be sold by Henry Orth, Sheriff, Harrisb. January 2d, 1800."

Reference Number: 07

Source: The Farmer's Instructor, and Harrisburgh Courant, Wednesday May 28, 1800. Vol. I, no. 21.
Notes: Text of ad: "Fifty Dollars Reward. Runaway Slave from Frederick Co. Md.----near Frederick Town on night of Tuesday 22nd inst. Negro man 32 yrs named 'Mid' but calls himself Middleton Garret. It is supposed some free person has Taken him off. Leroy Hughes, Fred. County, Md., April 24, 1800."

Reference Number: 08

Source: The Farmer's Instructor, and Harrisburgh Courant, February 25, 1801. Vol. II, no. 8.
Notes: Text of ad: "FOR SALE, A YOUNG, HEALTHY, NEGRO WENCH, a slave for life, she is well acquainted with FARM and HOUSE work----late the property of JOHN WILSON deceased, and will be sold, by ALEX. WILSON AND CASPER SMITH, EX'RS."

Reference Number: 09

Source: The Farmer's Instructor, and Harrisburgh Courant, October 21, 1801. Vol. II, no. 42.
Notes: Text of ad: "Thirty Dollars Reward. Ran away from the subscriber living in Whitedeer township Northumberland county, on the night of the 23rd inst. September a Negro Wench named Kate, about 29 years of age, had on and took with her a black wool hat, two calico, two stripped, and one white muslin shortgown, three stripped linsey, one white muslin and one green stuff petticoat, three shifts, one pair high heeled shoes, one pair calfskin and one pair calimanco slippers; and sundry other cloathes unknown. She is of a black complexion, middle size, and wants her foreteeth, and was raised by capt. Crouch deceased late of Paxton. She was seduced away by a negro man who calls himself EDWARD ROBERTS, of a swarthy complexion and has worked some time in the neighborhood and says he is free. Had on a deep blue cloth coat a pair of royal ribb'd overalls a pair of cotton stockings and good shoes talks good English and is very artful and cunning, has said he designed going towards the Gennessee. It is supposed they will pass for man and wife as she is with child to him. Whoever takes up said Wench and Negroe man and secures them in any jail in the State of Pennsylvania so that the subscriber may get the Wench and the Negroe man be convicted, shall recieve the above reward, or fifteen dollars for the Wench and all reasonable charges paid by ROAN McCLURE. September 26, 1801."

Reference Number: 10

Source: The Farmer's Instructor, and Harrisburgh Courant, November 25, 1801. Vol. II, no. 47.
Notes: Text of ad: "FOR SALE --David Patton selling 197 acres "plantation" including tannery and land in Londonderry (274 acres). LIKEWISE, will be disposed of, the time of a strong and healthy Negro Wench about 24 years of age (a slave for life.) For terms apply to the subscriber. Nov. 23rd 1801."

Reference Number: 11

Source: The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser, Vol. 4, no. 27, Monday May 9, 1796; p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "Whereas a certain negro man who calls himself Harry, was committed to the jail of Dauphin county, in Pennsylvania, on the 30th of April last, on suspicion of being a runaway slave; he is about 5 feet, 10 or 11 inches high, his face very remarkable on account of having a very large wart on his right cheek, near the ear, and one on his neck near the throat. His face much contracted by the small pox, especially about the nose. He says he formerly belonged to one Henry Snowden, of Elkridge in Maryland, who died about 7 years ago in Philadelphia. The proper owner of said negro, if any, are desired to come, pay costs, and take him away, otherwise he will be sold to pay costs. John M'Chesney, Jailor. May 7, 1796."

Reference Number: 12

Source: The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser, Vol. 16, no. 14, Saturday, January 16, 1808; p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "FOR SALE The Time of a NEGRO MAN, a slave to 28 years. He has five years and seven months to serve, and is a healthy, active young fellow; a complete farmer, is fond of working with horses, and wishes to go into the country. Joshua Elder January 15, 1808." This ad appeared again in the Oracle on February 13, 1808 and, similarly worded, also appeared in the Dauphin Guardian on January 15, 1808.

Reference Number: 13

Source: The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser, Vol. 23, no. 37, July 1, 1815; p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "20 Dollars Reward. Ran away from the subscriber, residing in East Pennsborough township, Cumberland County, about 7 miles from Harrisburg and 8 from Carlisle, on the 20th inst. a Negro boy, named Jack Harris, aged 15 years, about 4 feet 5 or 6 inches high, very black, and flat featured...Matthew Irwin. June 26th, 1815."

Reference Number: 14

Source: The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser, November 11, 1815; p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "$20 reward for 2 Negro men Jack and Lloyd, from Washington County Md.--expected to be headed for Chambersburg Pa."

Reference Number: 15

Source: Harrisburg Argus, Vol. I, March 8, 1828.
Notes: Text of ad: "$200 reward for Charles Barrick "Buck" age 26 from Libertytown, Fred. Co. Md. Henry Nelson, March 1, 1828."

Reference Number: 16

Source: Harrisburg Argus, Vol. I, July 26, 1828; p. 2.
Notes: Text of ad: "Bernard Hendle offers 6c reward for Jenny McClintock, age 15 a mulatto. Ran away June 30 from Carlisle."

Reference Number: 17

Source: Harrisburg Argus, Vol. I, July 26, 1828; p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "$100 reward for Andrew Martin (26) ran away from Robt. R. Richardson Jr. of Balt. on May 30, 1828." Note that slaveholders below the Mason-Dixon line offered a considerably higher reward during the same time period than Central Pennsylvania slaveholders, indicating the decreasing value of enslaved persons in Pennsylvania due to changing attitudes and the long term effects of the Gradual Emancipation Act of 1780.

Reference Number: 18

Source: Harrisburg Argus, Vol. I, November 22, 1828; p. 1.
Notes: Text of ad: "6c reward for Charlotte (15). Ran away from Martin Metzgar of Londonderry twp. on 27 Sept." Contrast the ridiculously small reward offer with the cost of the ads, which was one dollar for three consecutive ads. Metzgar's offer of six cents reward seems to be little more than a token amount.

Reference Number: 19

Source: Harrisburg Argus, Vol. III, March 13, 1830.
Notes: Text of ad: "$200 reward for 2 Negro boys who ran away from Carroll Hammond of Libertytown, Fred. Co. Md on 16 Dec. 1828." A subsequent ad named the runaways: "Dan and Peter," and increased the reward to $400. Harrisburg Argus, Vol. III, April 17, 1830; p. 2.

Reference Number: 20

Source: An inventory of the estate of William Brown, deceased, late of Carlisle. May, 17, 1802.
Notes: Original document in the archives of the Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA. The text reads, in part:

1 Cow 6.10.0
1 Horse (Black Jack) 15.00.0
1 Molatress Girl Let 70.0.0
1 Negro Girl Phan 70.0.0
1 Bay Horse 37.10.0

In this inventory, the enslaved persons were listed last, with the livestock. Note their value relative to the cows and horses.

Reference Number: 21

Source: "The Graveyard of Paxton Presbyterian Church." Pamphlet prepared as an Eagle Scout project by Michael Knight, 1976.
Notes: The graves of many of the slaveholders listed in this study are located in this cemetery as well.

Reference Number: 22

Source: Pennsylvania Reporter and Democratic Herald, December 9, 1828.
Notes: Source information from a telephone interview with Carl Dickson, Director of Fort Hunter, on October 16, 1990.
I wish to dispose of all my colored people at private sale:--One female slave, aged about sixty one years, strong and active of her age, she is an excellent washer, baker and cook, and understands the management of a dairy, and soap boiling.
ALSO, a female aged about twenty years, has eight years to serve; she understands all kind of house work, and is stout and healthy.
ALSO, a male aged about twenty four years, has four years to serve, remarkably stout and healthy, and understands all kinds of farming whatever.
ALSO, a female aged twenty two years, has six years to serve, stout and healthy, understands all kind of house work, a good cook and ironer; in short, she understands every kind of work that belongs to a respectable family.
Archibald M'Allister. December 9."

This ad offering slaves for sale was a rarity in Dauphin County by the late 1820's, a contrast to twenty and thirty years before this, when the various local papers were full of ads offering enslaved persons for sale. See Reference Numbers 06, 08, 10, 12, 30, 31 and 32.

Reference Number: 23

Source: Pennsylvania Reporter and Democratic Herald, December 28, 1828. This ad ran through February, 1829.
Notes: Text of ad: "ADVERTISEMENT. RAN AWAY from the subscriber at Fort Hunter, six miles above Harrisburg on the 19th instant, a female slave, named Sall Crage, aged about 60. I hereby forewarn all persons from harboring her, and will pay $2 to any person who will deliver her to me at Fort Hunter.
Archibald M'Allister. December 24, 1828."

Sally Craig was never recovered by McAllister, who also failed to sell all of his slaves by the time financial problems forced the sale of his assets at a sheriff's sale in 1829. At least one enslaved persons was listed among his assets.

Reference Number: 24

Source: Al Winn. "Historical Society acquires relic of escaped slave" Sunday Patriot-News (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), March 30, 1997, p. B3.
Notes: A photo of Johns accompanies the article.

Reference Number: 25

Source: The Pennsylvania Gazette, January 7, 1795, Reprinted in Richard Wojtowicz and Billy G. Smith, "Advertisements For Runaway Slaves, Indentured Servants, and Apprentices in The Pennsylvania Gazette, 1795-1796," Pennsylvania History 54 (1987): 34-43.
Notes: Text of ad: "Eight Dollars Reward. RAN AWAY from the subscriber, living in Pixton township, Dauphin county, about 6 miles from Harrisburg, on Friday, the 19th instant, a Negro BOY, named SAM, 17 years of age, 5 feet 9 or 10 inches high, well made, has very large feet, large featured, and thick lips, much pitted with the small-pox; had on when he went away, a brown coloured hunting-shirt, under jacket with strings to it, and trowsers of the same, a pair of coarse tow trowsers, and a linen shirt. It is probable he will change his name and clothes. Whoever takes up said Negro, and secures him in any jail, so that his master may get him again, shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges.
BENJAMIN DUNCAN December 26, 1794."
The Pennsylvania Gazette was distributed throughout Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey.

Reference Number: 26

Source: The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 6, 1795. Reprinted in Pennsylvania History 54 (1987): 34-43.
Notes: Text of ad: "WAS committed to the goal of Chester county, some time ago, a Negro Man, who calls himself Sam. Roach, acknowledges to be a slave to Benjamin Duncan, of Dauphin county, near Harrisburgh. His Master is hereby desired to come, pay charges and take him away, in four weeks from the date hereof, otherwise he will be discharged, on paying his fees.
THOMAS TAYLOR, Goaler. April 30, 1795."

Reference Number: 27

Source: Dauphin Guardian, October 28, 1806, p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "40 Dollars Reward. RAN-AWAY from the subscriber, living in East Pennsboro township, Cumberland county, and state of Pennsylvania, on the night of the 25th inst. A NEGRO MAN, named HARRY COLLINS, aged 40 years; 5 feet, 5 inches high, out mouthed, his teeth black, and decayed before. Had on, and took with him, a grey mixed cloth Coat, almost new; a drab coloured sailor's Jacket; one swansdown, and one marsailles waistcoat; and an old fur Hat.
--ALSO-- A Negro Woman, named LETTY, aged 23 years; 5 feet, 6 or 7 inches high, stout made, very active, good countenance, and walks very straight. Had on, and took with her, one white muslin, and one callico Gown; a number of Short-gowns, white, striped, and callico; a dark muslin bonnet, trimmed with black; a brown stuff'd Petticoat, one dimmity ditto, and two of striped linsey, red and blue. The above Negroes are very black--they took with them a mulatto child, aged 14 months, good countenance, and can walk alone.
"Whoever secures the above described Negroes, in any Jail, so that their master may get them again, shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges, if bro't home, paid by me, Thomas Fisher. October 28, 1806."

Reference Number: 28

Source: Dauphin Guardian, July 6, 1805, p. 3.
Notes: Text of ad: "30 DOLLARS REWARD! RAN-AWAY from the subscriber, on Sunday evening last, the 30th ult. a negro man, named Nathaniel Butler, and HANNAH, his wife; the former is about 6 feet high, slim made, has a a very flat nose, and his teeth considerably a-part--and plays very well on the violin. Had on, and took with him, a blue cloth round-about; two pair of trowsers, one of nankeen, and the other of tow linnen; and a good rorum hat.
--The latter is about 5 feet 2 inches high, slim made, and good looking; two of her fore teeth are also considerably a-part. She had on, and took with her, a white muslin, and two light calico dresses; a pink silk (gilt) and a white dimity petticoat; a Leghorn bonnet, and a half worn fine hat--together with other articles.
"Whoever takes up, and secures the above negroes in any jail in the state of Pennsylvania, so that the subscriber may get them again, shall have the above reward, or 15 dollars for either. GEORGE BRENIZER. Harrisburg, July 6, 1805."

Reference Number: 29

Source: Dauphin Guardian, August 31, 1805, p. 4.
Notes: Text of ad: "TAKE NOTICE. WHEREAS I have recovered my Negro servants, Nathan Butler, and his wife Hannah, who absconded from me on the evening of the 30th ultimo; and as they are peculiarly fond of having transactions with people, without my knowledge or consent, which might tend to my disadvantage; I, therefore, hereby forewarn all persons from having any dealings with them, whatever; otherwise they will be dealt with to the utmost rigor of the law. GEORGE BRENIZER. Harrisburg, July 13, 1805."

Reference Number: 30

Source: Dauphin Guardian, June 16, 1807, p. 3.
Notes: Partial text of ad: "Will be Sold, by postponement, on Thursday, the 18th the dwelling house of Mr. William Kelso, deceased, in East Pennsboro' township, Cumberland county--the following articles, viz:--... "--LIKEWISE--The time of service of a Negro BOY; and a variety of other articles, too numerous to insert....reasonable credit will be given by ELIZABETH KELSO, Ex'trx, ROBERT HARRIS, Ex'tr. June 9, 1807."

Reference Number: 31

Source: Dauphin Guardian, December 21, 1805, p. 3.
Notes: Partial text of ad: "TO BE SOLD, By way of Public Vendue, On Friday, the 27th day of December inst. at the late dwelling house of John Wilson, deceased, in Swatara township, the following personal property, viz:--... "--ALSO-- The time of servitude of A Mulatto Man & Negro Girl;...David Ritchey, Thomas Smith, Admr's. December 20, 1805."

Reference Number: 32

Source: The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser, January 23, 1799, p. 4.
Notes: Text of ad: "For Sale, A STOUT, healthy NEGRO MAN, aged 19 years, and has 9 years to serve; he is well acquainted with all kinds of Farming Work, and possesses a very obliging disposition. He has had the small-pox, measles and whooping-cough--and is sold for no other reason than the want of employment. For terms apply to the subscriber in Londonderry township, Dauphin county.
PATRICK HAYES. January 9, 1799."

Reference Number: 33

Source: Adams Sentinel, September 13, 1826, p. 3.
Notes: This was also to have been published in the Harrisburg Intelligencer, York Recorder, and Lancaster Journal.

Reference Number: 34

Source: Gravestone inscription in the small "Black Cemetery" near Fort Hunter. From a diagram provided by Carl Dickson, Director of Fort Hunter.
Notes: Inscription: "Andrew Craig/ born July 21, 1795/ died Aug. 211863/ Aged 68 yrs. 1 mo." The stone shows signs of a shotgun mark. A nearby stone is for Andrew's wife, Rachel, 1825-1889.  For a photograph of this and other tombstones in this small African American cemetery, see "The African American Burial Ground Near Fort Hunter."

Reference Number: 35

Source: Dr. Leroy T. Hopkins. "Black Eldorado on the Susquehanna: The Emergence of Black Columbia, 1726-1861," Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society 89/4 (1985): 116.
Notes: none

Reference Number: 36

Source: Last Will and Testament of Elizabeth (Gailbraith) Kelso, Widow of Dr. Joseph Kelso, dated April, 2nd, 1818. Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. From a typewritten photocopy, forwarded to me by Fred Kelso, Port Deposit, Maryland.
Notes: Text:
In the Name of God Amen, I Elizabeth Kelso of Harrisburg, Dauphin County, and State of Pennsylvania, widow, do make and ordain this my Last Will and Testament.
I give and bequeath to my daughter Mary Elizabeth Kelso all my silver spoons, with my best feather bed, the bedstead and bedding.
And I do here by constitute my executors hereinafter named to be guardians of the persons and estates of my children.
I give and bequeath the colored girl, "Hannah," who served her time and now lives with me all my common wearing apparel, the small bed made of feathers and flocks with the bedding, there to, and Fifty Dollars in cash to be paid by said executors.

It is further my will and I do hereby order and direct that all my personal estate which shall remain after the payment of Debts, Funeral Expenses, and the above Legacies and Bequests shall be put out at interest by my exectors hereinafter named until my above children shall arrive to the age of twenty one years or be married, or either of which events I devise to my said children the said personal estate to be divided between them share and share alike, and in case either of said children should die before having arrived to the age of twenty one years or to be married, then I desire the said personal estate to the survivors of them attaining to that age or being married, but in case that both my children should die before they arrive to the age of twenty one years or to be married, then I give and bequeath all my personal estate to my heirs at law.

And I do hereby constitute and appoint Thomas Elder Esquire and Robert Sloan, Cabinet Maker, both of Harrisburg aforesaid to be the executors of this my Last Will and Testament.
In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this second day of April in the year of our Lord One Thousand and Eight Hundred and Eighteen.
Elizabeth Kelso

Reference Number: 37

Source: Estate inventory of William Kelso, Jr., of East Pennsboro Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, dated June 3, 1807. From a photocopy, forwarded to me by Fred Kelso, Port Deposit, Maryland.
Notes: From the text:
The term of Servitude of a Black boy $50.00
Articles taken by the Widow: The term of Servitude of a Mulatto Girl $30.00.

Reference Number: 38

Source: History of the Counties of Dauphin and Lebanon in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: Biographical and Genealogical, William Henry Egle, M.D., M.A. Reprinted by Higginson Book Company, Salem Massachusetts, 1991; p. 52.
Notes: These listings were culled from the original registry for Lancaster County, then in Lancaster, PA.

Reference Number: 39

Source: History of Chester County, Pennsylvania. J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope. Louis H. Everts, Philadelphia, PA, 1881; pages 423-426.

Reference Number: 40

Source: "Enumeration of the taxable Inhabitants and Slaves in the County of Dauphin." Pennsylvania Septennial Census Returns, 1807, Dauphin County, Derry Township. Microfilm copy, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg.
Notes: The only microfilmed records in this list for 1807 are for the township of Derry.

Reference Number: 41

Source: Walking Tour of Harrisburg Cemetery: 150th Anniversary Edition. Harrisburg Cemetery Association; Harrisburg, PA, 1995.

Reference Number: 42

Source: U.S. Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania, 4th Direct Tax Division, 3rd & 4th Assessment Districts (Dauphin County). Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, Microcopy no. 372, Roll no. 11.
Notes: This tax record lists the number of taxable slaves owned by township and owner in three categories: "Whole number of Slaves of all ages," "Exempt" and "Number of Slaves above the age of 12 and under the age of 50, subject to taxation."

Reference Number: 43

Source: Register of Negro and Mulatto Slaves--Cumberland County, Pennsylvania; Cumberland County Clerk of Courts, Microfilm in Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA.
Notes: These records include a portion of the 1780 registrations and a few registrations for children of slaves.

Reference Number: 44

Source: 1780 Slave Registrations, "Slave Returns Listings" in "Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Board of County Commissioners--Returns for Negro and Mulatto Slaves, 1780-81, 1788-1811, 1813-21, 1824-26, 1833." Typewritten copy of original records. Microfilm at Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA.
Notes: This is a typewritten transcription of the original slave records in the possession of the Cumberland County Historical Society, which has been put onto microfilm. The transcription was probably done by a member of the society..

Reference Number: 45

Source: Registrations of Children of Slaves, "Slave Returns Listings" in "Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Board of County Commissioners--Returns for Negro and Mulatto Slaves, 1780-81, 1788-1811, 1813-21, 1824-26, 1833." Typewritten copy of original records. Microfilm at Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA.
Notes: See notes for source number 44.

Reference Number: 46

Source: History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania. R.C. Smedley, M.D.; Lancaster, PA, 1883. Repr. 1968, Negro Universities Press, New York.
Notes: This copy was in the State Library of Pennsylvania, in Harrisburg.

Reference Number: 47

Source: Dauphin Guardian, October 18, 1808; Page 2.
Notes: Text of advertisement: "For Sale, A Negro Man, about forty years of age, a slave for life--he is stout and healthy, honest, careful and industrious--he is handy among horses and capable of doing all kinds of work belonging to a farmer. For terms apply to the subscriber in Harrisburg. Joshua Elder. October 18, 1808."

Reference Number: 48

Source: Dauphin Guardian, Tuesday, July 12, 1808; Page 2.
Notes: Text of advertisement: "Advertisement. To be sold, the time of a You(n)g NEGRO BOY, having upwards of Six Years to serve--he is stout, healthy, and active, and understands all labour on a farm, as well as any of the colour. He is likewise a good waggoner, and careful of horses, knowing very well how to feed, & to take care of them --Any person wanting such a boy, by calling on Samuel Elder, in Harrisburg, may know his price, or on the owner living in Swatara township, Dauphin county.
July 4, 1808"
This ad ran through August 23, 1808.

Reference Number: 49

Source: Pennsylvania Republican, Tuesday, February 16, 1816; Page 3.
Notes: Text of Advertisement:

"Fifteen Dollars Reward.
A MULATTO girl named RUTH, belonging to the estate of William Frazer, of Londonderry township, Dauphin County, deceased, having procured a pass in order to hunt another master, went to Middletown, stopped at Mr. M'Cord's, innkeeper, staid there some weeks, and after the death of Mr. Frazer, being sent for, it appears she had gone away from said M'Cord's about two weeks ago. There is no doubt but she has her indenture, and will endeavor to prove she is free. She is a stout girl, and is some what reel-footed; took her clothes with her.
Whoever takes up said mulatto and returns her to William Hamilton, administrator of said estate, or secures her in the jail of this county, shall have the above reward and other reasonable expenses paid, by
William Hamilton, Admr
Feb 6, 1816
N.B. Possibly she has gone into York county."

Reference Number: 50

Source: Pennsylvania Republican, Tuesday, June 18, 1816
Notes: Text of Advertisement:

"6 Cents Reward.
Ran away from the subscriber last week, a mulatto girl fourteen years of age, had on when she went away a red colored frock, and a red bonnet. Whoever takes up and secures said girl to the owner, shall have the above reward but no charges.
Martin Getz.
Halifax, Pa. May 29, 1816"

Second Page of Sources (Numbers 51-100)
Third Page of Sources (Numbers 101-150)
Fourth Page of Sources (Numbers 151-)


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